Thursday, 6 July 2017

Indian Writing in English: A Reflection on the Emerging Creative and Critical Trends

Text of my Plenary session talk within the country wide Seminar on present day South Asian Literature in English, 20 - 21 March 2017, at the Centre for overseas Languages (English), important college of South Bihar, Gaya

Venue: Renaisance, Dayanand-Sushila Cultural Centre, A.P. Colony, Gaya


you may agree we as poets belong to the present, which shapes our innovative focus. Some of us have also been writing vis-à-vis the crises of vital ideas, ideals and systems and suffering isolation in our own mind however not without main to a reconciliation in some manner.

To quote Octavio Paz from his Nobel lecture on Dec eight, 1990 at Stockholm, "it can seem paradoxical to mention that we had been expelled from the present, however it's miles a sense we all had at a few second. A number of us skilled it first as a condemnation, later transformed into awareness and motion. The search for the prevailing is neither the pursuit of an earthly paradise nor that of a undying eternity: it's miles the search for the actual fact." coming across this "actual fact" can be complicated due to the fact we ourselves are a part of it, its disintegration, department or disappearance, or its conversion right into a the on the spot or fixed present. To quote from Shiv ok Kumar's poem, 'Coromandel seaside': "I recognize/if I probe any deeper/all the particles will/slither into the hole--/the ocean will belch/and all proof descend/into the subliminal bed."

The despairing dehumanizing affects of the socalled civilized life-its socioeconomic realities, the tragic mess one is obliged to suffer-have left deeper marks on the present day psyche. To quote O.P. Bhatnagar: "we're scared of talking the fact/And resisting some thing is unjust/Foul and corrupt in our bones." (The Inaudible panorama,p. 10)

numerous touchy poets derive sustenance from encounter with the immediate and the tangible; they act via looking to apprehend what it is vis-à-vis their very own dreams, frequently seen in half sleep-restless and fraught with infinite dangers and surprises; they explore their own mind, frame, psyche, their very own existence. Now and again with an consciousness of lack of harmony with their surrounding. They're baffled at the lifestyles and residing inside the shadows of those non secular, political, social systems that maintain us at the identical time as they oppress us. On occasion their anguished consciousness invitations them to self-exam, at different times the sense of being unique or not belonging seems as a task, a spur that incites them to action, to head forth and face the outside world, to mirror on its genesis, the beyond and the destiny.

They replicate at the condition of the people isolated from the society and contemplate over diverse ranges of human dating and issues of life; perversion, corruption, degeneration, morbidity, privation, lack of confidence; terrors of bloodshed; ache and agony of aimless killings and death; feeling of helplessness; focus of political and social turpitude; mockery of idealism, values and morality; tendency to manouvre truth; sport of comfort; exploitation of the terrible and harmless; in brief, the hypocrisy working at all degrees. They address themselves to embodiments of cutting-edge corruption at the same time as they are trying to betray what it's far like to be a human being vis-à-vis new set of vulgarities now and again.

A number of them make poetry out of arguments with themselves: they may be driven to apprehend themselves, their lives. Their 'non-public' voice is lively by using issues and arguments across the mind/body relation, around what most people try to preserve concealed-the sexual emotions, the sensations of the flesh; like every right artist, they also are trying to find to make lifestyles show itself. They write with the notice of what is denied in our everyday lifestyles, what is beneath the pores and skin of things around, the psychospiritual strains, the ethical dilemmas, the betrayals, and the paradoxes.

There are certain poets who integrate personal recollections with history whilst there may be a few sort of a neo-mysticism in the pursuit of others, displaying subtle absorption of motifs and memories from their personal roots/beyond in exploring the which means of their various co-present lives. The philosophical insight and artistic fee of poetic creation make many a current poet actual.

My observations, howsoever popular, need to motivate teachers and researchers to discover new voices and look at them as part of the curriculum. It disappoints me, and damages the reason of South Asian writing in English, whilst a younger instructor or researcher tells me that during their university or university research on new or residing authors isn't permitted. Speaking as a poet, and if we claim a belonging to what we name Indian English Writing, then, as academics, we have to make certain that poets like me (or Prabhat k Singh, or others present here) are not dumped without being examine or evaluated. A little huge heartedness is necessary in our personal interest, that is, for being remembered as Indian English poets and writers. The dynamics of latest writing desires to be understood via evaluation and complaint. Otherwise, the reason will die, repeating the reward for a handful of socalled widely recognized poets and writers, and recycling research. Let's shed our ego.

Speakme as an educational, let me share with you that earlier than I retired in December 2015, and so long as the only-12 months MPhil programme endured at ISM (now IIT), I, as Professor and Head, no longer only encouraged students to write down their dissertations on new authors and poets but additionally on new books in their choice. They explored works of such marginalized or new poets and authors as R. Rabindranath Menon, Pronab Kumar Majumder, Niranjan Mohanty, V V B Ramarao, Y S Rajan, A P J Abdul Kalam, S L Peeran, Syed Ameeruddin, Hazara Singh, P k pleasure, D C Chambial, I ok Sharma, Maha Nand Sharma, B Ahmad, Pashupati Jha, Vihang Naik, Manas Bakshi, Biplab Majumdar, P. Raja, R okay Singh, Jaishree Misra, Mamang Dai, Tamsula Ao, S Radhamani, Sudha Iyer, Nirmala Pillai, Venu Arora, Dipanwita Mukerjee and many others and a bit higher known Mani Rao, Tabish Khair, Manu Joseph, Raj Kamal Jha, Chitra Banerjee Divakaruni, Jhumpa Lahiri, Eve Enseler (who wrote Vagina Monologues), Raewyn Alexander (who wrote fats), and Ross Donlon. My different colleagues there maintain to guide studies on several new authors from Pakistan, Bangla Desh and Sri Lanka.

A seminar like this offers us with an possibility to find out and engage approximately new capabilities. A lot of them had been writing and publishing in opposition to numerous odds. Permit me point out my ultra-modern discovery, Kalpna Singh-Chitnis. Like Tabish Khair, she is born, added up and educated in Gaya. She taught Political technology at Gaya university earlier than moving to the us to pursue her hobby in film directing on the new york movie Academy regular Studios in Hollywood. A Bihar Rajbhasha awardee, translator, editor of a literary journal lifestyles and Legend, and founder and director at Silent River movie pageant, Kalpna Singh is now primarily based in l.  A., California.

Her poems are refreshingly charming. "let's simply be, whoever we're"-that is how she seeks to bare the soul, our being at every degree. Naked Soul (published by way of Partridge India, 2015) is her fourth poetry collection. She writes easy, sensuous and passionate poems which can be spiritually elevating. She uses natural elements as metaphors for a complex of human feelings that join her to the whole global. Her voice is "as authentic and pass-cultural as it's far time-honored and conventional." you could listen the mystic in her quest: "i've come all the manner/now not to try your love for me;//i am here to inform--/I can't find the money for no longer to love any more!" (p. 12). Like many girls poets the world over, she too pronounces: "My body is now not my predicament" (p 19) and "we relish the darkness bestowed upon us/leading us towards every other/our wings are bruised/and there may be no sky above our heads,/however we've what the heavens don't;//like a cord inside the candle/we burn together, we light together." (ancient Love, p. 29)

Kalpna is innocent, deep and perceptive, as she explores the ancient question, "Who am I?" and wonders if she's "a naked soul with none face?" adding: "i am able to see myself in a second/past past, gift and future/on foot my manner" (p 82). She exposes in bare Soul a female's "wild inner beauty" as she articulates in various tones male-female relationship: "I can't be a disaster for not anything" (p 19) and "it's now time for me to drain my soul/roll into the abundance of silence/to listen my voice... "

The girls poets in-appearance, and outlook too, is challenging. They take a look at, as their poetry famous, their personal and public life, or regular reports boldly. They integrate the flesh into their beliefs and representations simply as they had been historically linking themselves to their domestic, circle of relatives, motherhood, social life, solitude, god, nature, myths. With the profound adjustments which have taken vicinity in their lives, their picks, and their possibilities within the latest length, their status, roles, occupation, and prison function, they now voice their own visions and knowledge of the ordinary existence, regularly cutting throughout cultures and regions. Once they portray their sexuality, or comment on our sexual politics, additionally they inform us how woman is likewise master of her personal vicinity in poetical advent.

Numerous new collections that I may want to lay my hands on reveal their sensitivities and struggles that attraction for his or her loss of pedantry, moral observation, or pointless romanticizing. They make the most the medium to apprehend why and how of lifestyles on the one hand, and to complement and have a good time the woman consciousness, redeeming their bodily and spiritual lifestyles, on the opposite. They sound warm, colourful and capable.

Permit's also pay attention to positive apparent realities. Quite some of our present day poets - male or female, of their 30s, 40s, 50s, or 60s, with a 20th century consciousness-have learnt to stay with a international in upheaval. They have grown up in very disappointing external situations of residing. It's been regular for them (in reality, it is one among our collective cultural tendencies as Indians) to suppose intuitively, and/or turn non-public, inward, godward, or spirit-ward; their functionality lies in their emotional sensitivity than in intellectual abstraction. It isn't always their escapism however an urge for converting the state of affairs for themselves.

A Kashmiri female poet, Syeda Afshana, boldly disapproves of politicians and people who hold anti-ladies perspectives, is critical of the media for decreasing Kashmir to "propaganda symbolism." She touches issues along with bloodshed, violence, insurgency, loss, sacrifice, and courting. It's far, but, her "distinctive" mind-set that makes her exceptional. Her unhappiness is clear while she says, "A scream/that is only mine, just mine/and has remained unchanged/due to the fact that instances immemorial." (The Fugitive Sunshine, p. 24)

Writing in reaction to the gang rape of a 23-year antique girl (Nirbhaya) in New Delhi 3 years ago, Chandni Singh feels a part of every woman that receives raped. Permit me quote from her poem 'i'm a lady in India':


I will maintain my very own on problems

about the surroundings.

I will wax eloquent approximately literature and music.

I'm informed, i'm the future;

and for a moment i am bent into believing

within the bubble i've sold into.

However each morning

I cower.

My ego slouches

as it is castrated at the hands of

crotch-clutching goondas.

I've lost be counted:

there are too many to fight.

I may be liberated. And knowledgeable,

but my fireplace has been doused.

Neither rhetoric nor overview can

convey me solace.

And so, I flip the other cheek.

I have become deaf to the whistles and

ignorant of the lewdness.

I regulate my dupatta

and appearance instantly beforehand

as they line the streets and pucker their mouths.

I am only a lady in India.

Http://www.Themindfulword.Org/2013/lady-in-india-poem-chandni-singh/#J17f6gUsRfEhHdpV.Ninety nine

let me mention a couple of different current times suggested in the media. Within the neighbouring Afghanistan, some dozen Kabul ladies, who name poetry their sword, are determined to defend their new-found freedom despite constant loss of life threats from the Talibans. Poetry is their form of resistance in a taboo-ridden, extraordinarily conservative and almost illiterate society that treat poetry writing as sin. Karima Shabrang, as an example, makes use of express snap shots of intimacy: "I omit you... My arms are stretching from the ruins of Kabul... I want to invite you to my room for delicious smoke... And you'll provide me shelter for your shivering crimson body." more and more ladies there are waging combat for the rights, along with their rights to jot down and be heard.


Freedom to explicit themselves freely and creatively is something most girls locate hard to have, but a number of them, no longer necessarily subscribing to feminist practices, have actually and boldly proven how their modernity lies in fashioning a brand new language for themselves, for new methods of seeing, knowledge and decoding humankind and the arena, for their attempt to trade "questioning and developing." right here haiku writing is available in on hand. It is in line with the contemporary minimalist trend. A few examples:

"Bathing in bubbles/my breasts become mountains--/glistening with snow" (Pam Penny)

"may additionally morning green fly/in my purple lipstick, you chose/a lovely demise" (Susan Kerr)

"Remembering remaining/summer's infidelity:/your tongue in my cheek" (Sheila Glen Bishop)

"my teenagers has long gone--/a solitary crow circles/including his lament" (Janice M Bostok)

"pregnant again--/the fluttering of moths/against the window" (Janice M Bostok)

"cleansing the bedroom--/the warmth of her blouse/left inside the solar" (Michael Dylan Welch)

"her arms push/the roots into the earth--/contact-me-not" (R.Okay.Singh)

"green stones--/ the moss conquers/ the mountain" (Mohd Azim Khan)

I started out with poets' quest for the existing. They are always in search of latest methods of announcing, the brand new experience of language, the brand new ways of expressing what we see, feel and assume. Now as I communicate about haiku writing, that is the shortest lyric poem, allow me clarify: haiku poems usually deal with the existing; they're written within the present hectic to create a feel of the instant of enjoy frequently. It is 3 traces, conventionally consisting of five-7-5 syllables and one season word (or Kigo, as they name), comply with the principles of evaluation, comparison, or association between the images. Within the words of a Canadian haiku poet Betty Drevniok, "In haiku the some thing and the some thing else are set down together in truely stated images. Collectively they complete and satisfy every different as one precise occasion." that is, haiku is a entire poem for the audience to narrate to.

As an example, "a spring nap/downstream cherry bushes/in bud." what is experienced, but not said, is the notion that buds on a tree may be as compared to plants taking a nap. The photo of cherry bud could also be as compared to a number of items simply as some thing else in spring landscape may be in comparison to a sleep without naming the factor? The reader is loose to assume, or enjoy, and create a new haiku!

I've been reading and writing a variety of haiku over the past 3 many years or so, and have advanced a taste for handiest such haiku (with out differentiating among haiku, that is conventionally goal, impersonal, and pertains to nature, and senryu, which is light and has humour, irony or satire associated with human events) that make use of concrete imagery, or sensation of a lived second, and not abstractions.

Over the previous couple of decades, haiku has evolved as global poetry, and the seven hundred years antique conventional eastern form has been internationalized, offering to the poets in each language, and mainly in English, an incredible possibility to experiment. They have been sharing their moments of numerous stories of poetical price in 3 (quick-long-short) strains, decreased to minimum details. (that is, there may be no room for adjectives, adverbs, suggest info or remarks, no rational analysis, no amplification, but simply the crucial of the moment of enjoy or remark, in an excellent pragmatic use of the language. The poet lets the readers hook up with his/her context.)they have got used the fast poem shape to deliver their private emotions and emotional states, ordinary fact, sensual energy, wit and humour, or even reflections and reviews. But what matters for the right impact is whether those factor to, or relate to an real, lived enjoy and evoke deep emotions in the reader; whether the poet could catch certain shiny moments of existence with his/her inner eyes.

The critical element is to put in writing in a stripped down, terse style the precise experience, or the photo (of it), and now not about the feelings themselves, or meaning; go away it to the reader. The emotions will be maximum powerful if recommended not directly, by using letting the reader enjoy the photograph or movement that the haiku conveys, as opposed to with the aid of attempting to inform the reader what to sense.

Studying new haiku poets is a reminder that life is so rich in happenings that you could give attention to a particular moment and create a haiku, now not always all cool,dry and goal,but emotionally pleasurable as properly. Several new poets of the subcontinent -- Sonam Chhoki, Namgay Wangchuk, Kinely Tshering, Tashi Gyaltshen (Bhutan); Abhi Subedi, Mukul Dehal, Bamdev Sharma, Janak Sapkota, Anand Raj Joshi, Haris Adhikari (Nepal); Athar Tahir, Naeem-ur-Rahman, Mohd Azim Khan, Sohail Ahmed Suddiqui, Shaheen Shah (Pakistan); Malintha Parera (Sri Lanka); Rahman Mustafizur, Sadiq Alam, Quamrul Hassan, Khan Munia (Bangla Desh); Angelee Deodhar, Radhey Shiam, Vishnu P Kapoor, Vidur Jyoti, Pravat Kumar Padhy, Rebba Singh, Ajaya Mehala, k. Ramesh, Gautam Nadkarni, R.Okay. Singh, Kala Ramesh and scores of others (India) demonstrate some thing greater than talent and fashion-haiku sensibility-which naturally makes room for readers to imagine what stays unexpressed, to "make connection." Readers turn out to be a part of the poets' creation of "here and now."

but there also are many haiku poets, I may not like to name any, who provide a poetic or literary or philosophical view of the aspect determined as opposed to the component itself. They appear romantic, sentimental, didactic, or cleverly manipulating the simple truths of nature's wonders, or life's revel in. Some poets characteristic a reason or aim to their objects of statement, and save you readers from making connections. They generally tend to explain and difficult (as in their ordinary poems) rather than comic strip their enjoy of the moment. Some others emerge as writing 'sublime' poetry, or adhering to the 'form' and no longer spirit, the spirit of here and now, as I said.

It's far the spirit at the back of the phrases that counts: the pauses, hesitations, and the silences between words and among the lines, the silences that make a poem live and breathe. That is what makes a terrific haiku, and not coaching, preaching, moralizing, philosophizing, intellectualizing, or what they do in epigrammatic poetry.

My revel in of analyzing and writing haiku convinces me that the first-rate haiku just happens, or receives without difficulty written, just as the short poem with its directness, naturalness, and simplicity of the keenly determined moments in life and union of mind and nature conveys something so evocative and dynamic that one is full of a experience of being alive, or one with what's known as the "haiku moment."

given that haiku is a specific poetic device, if one makes use of two pix and a key word, if one juxtaposes  matters that take place to be fairly "together" with an eye fixed on the dynamics of relationship, if one is down-to-earth and conveys sensuousness without or with the conventional kigo (season phrase), or if one practices free-shape and experimental haiku in three-5-3, three-four-3, four-7-5, four-6-four, or even 7-7 syllables, or just short-lengthy-brief lines-I enjoy them. What matters is precision, perception, and cognizance; sound and rhythm, but not rhyme.

Traditional haiku do now not rhyme, although rhymed haiku, as attempted through I H Rizvi or T V Reddy, are very a good deal feasible. If for structural motives there are only two strains in a haiku, or the closing phrases of any two lines rhyme with each different, I experience them too, furnished the haiku image or haiku spirit remains intact, and the entirety is apparent and reads properly. If rhymes manifest clearly and fluently, not artificially, it provides to the beauty of the three-liners.

If a South Asian poet is well-versed in the genre of haiku and demonstrates sensitivity for the medium, s/he appeals to a wider local/country al/global target audience. They apprehend what and the way of haiku, and so, their 'style' may be explored in terms of neighborhood/local usages as a part of a national norm. The authenticity of expression of the poets sheds mild at the multilingual /multicultural situational context and their English.


Researchers can look at the socio-emotional contexts and troubles too: Haiku and tanka permit for tension, contradiction,and emotional expressiveness, every of that's important to explore the complexities of local identification. They can examine their communicative devices, highlighting now not only the usage of the typical kigo (season) words specific to the poet's area and/or contexts however also 'deviances' that's a significant constituent of pragmatics and stylistics, as part of the system of model of the japanese tradition and use of English inside the SL contexts.

As I suppose aloud, it's also viable, as an instance, to explore heteronyms (which are exceptional in form, have identical reference, and share stylistic equivalence (e.G. Autumn/fall, hood/top, corn/oats/maize, pavement/sidewalk, pancake/hotcake, trailer/truck/tractor trailer and so forth) and relate to Indian kigo phrases, besides supporting the worldwide target market to understand the mind-set of audio system' local desire/territorially preferred editions for the same phrase or set of words in a context. There are such a lot of new expressions and improvements in haiku and tanka.

There may be a lot experimentation in phrase-formation, code-blending, code-switching, and mortgage translations going on, and it is challenging to describe South Asian Englishes, or the English used by poets in the area. Researchers have an opportunity right here for international and intereregional assessment, and possible lexicographical take a look at.

The ones of you interested in stylistics, literary pragmatics, discourse analysis, or view literary hobby as communicational may discover it profitable to explore the brand new grammar of poetry thru jap poetry form as tailored in English no longer handiest in India however additionally South Asia, Europe, North the usa and Africa. The poets use metaphors, irony, humour, words with double meanings, puns, word-performs, riddles/puzzles, paradox, besides japanese strategies of shasei (sketch from lifestyles), shajutsu (reality), depicting some thing as it is, sabi (loneliness, solitude, pity), wabi (poverty, austerity), yugen (thriller) and so forth otherwise. Their text structure and communicative feature of aesthetic experience requires severe instructional have a look at and studies, if you trust my observations as a practicing poet and educational, who is committed to the merchandising of creativity in Indian English and its grievance.

Allow me assure you the canon need now not repudiate the brand new and marginalized voices (I may be biased if I point out some and leave out the others), however the tendency of teachers, the electricity politics apart, to really reject the native Indian English poets in favour of a handful of names, even after maturity of Indian English, isn't always wonderful. Nor is there any sense in recycling facts (inside the name of research) about already firmly hooked up authors consisting of Mulk Raj Anand (approximately one hundred theses), R.Okay. Narayan (about a hundred and forty theses), Raja Rao (about 70 theses), Kamala Markandeya (about 70 theses), Anita Desai (a hundred and forty theses), Sri Aurobindo (75 theses), Ruth Prawer Jhabwala (50 theses), Arun Joshi (45 theses), Shashi Deshpande (over forty five theses), Salman Rushdie (forty seven theses), V S Naipaul (45 theses), Kamala Das (forty two theses), Nissim Ezekiel, Manohar Malgonkar, Bhabani Bhattacharya (every over 30 to 35 theses)-those facts are dated with the aid of five to six years. What new is being stated when each of these writers have over 20 to 70 complete period books already posted on them? The ones who have been evaluating PhD theses can let you know higher how frustrating it isn't always to find something new and interesting in a look at and yet ok it!

A trade in attitude is essential. Until the academia discover the literary imagination and linguistic inventiveness of the brand new and the marginalized Indian and other South Asian writers as they negotiate their varied cultural identities, or their search of alternatives for the introduction of every other world, they might not be capable of familiarize students and researchers with hastily converting kinds of writing, here in our us of a, be it fiction or poetry. Fiction is with no trouble general because the shape has tailored to the short converting world and writers have been trying new storytelling strategies. They had been revolutionary and readers who purchase their work assist them. Latest fictioneers inclusive of Ashwin Sanghi, Amish Tripathi, Mohan Vizhakat, Rajiv Menon, Jaishree Misra and others had been a success for his or her innovative innovation and delusion-making. They're worth analyzing for educational ranges. Poets too need help.

In anything little manner we are able to help, permit's try and make studies applicable, clean, tough, revolutionary, and adding to new know-how by means of examining, for example, the rising cultural dimensions and discourse; the special worlds-as-experienced, conceived, and talked about to explore the brilliant variety of revel in and communicate of the world (there is no one world-as-conceived-by way of-us in any respect); the 'otherness of English' in all its innovative and important manifestations; the relationship of one language (that talks about) to every other (that during which we speak). With suitable theoretical tactics, it's miles viable to sell move-cultural communicate. We need an eclectic knowledge of creativity, as Wole Soyinka once pleaded, for an recognition of "universal catalogue of metaphors of art." William Harris even speaks of "a sort of pass-cultural psyche of humanity, a cross-cultural psyche that bristles with the tone and fabric of encounters among socalled savage cultures and socalled civilized cultures."

We want to be really apt and yet tolerant to appreciate a multifarious creativity and sell "affordable discussion" without being hegemonic, antagonistic, condemning, or threatening. It is possible to probe new literatures in a spirit of top faith, expertise, and reasonable disagreement. The college studies programme may be geared in the direction of multiculturalism, valuing and encouraging individual thinking, but discouraging dominance, conformity and subservience.

Wondering aloud, I would like to signify for relevant research, each instructor in his/her college and college must pick out 3 to 5 new, or much less acknowledged, or marginalized authors (poets, novelists, dramatists) every at (I) local/district/country degree; (ii) regional stage; (iii) national stage; (iv) international level, and examine every of them for MPhil and PhD theses singly, or in a collection, or collectively, and/or relatively, each intra- and inter-domestically and across the world, and negotiate innovative and essential variations. This may help generate a large number of recent 'subjects' and promote a advantageous go-cultural mediation on the idea of equality, rather than one the premise of dominant versus dominated.

Academic and poet buddies inclusive of Dr I H Rizvi and Dr Satish Kumar have posted works drawing interest to ratings of poets and authors from Uttar Pradesh just as Dr C L Khatri and Dr I okay Sharma have carried out books and articles on poets and authors from Bihar and Rajasthan. Muse India, a web literary journal, has committed issues on writings in English from numerous other areas of the u . S . A .. In addition, any other new on-line magazine, introduction and criticism, edited through Sudhir k Arora, Abnish Singh Chauhan and others, from a small metropolis like Moradabad, has been promoting new talents and linking them to international audience. This sort of exercise has to choose up to provide new existence to literary and scholastic studies at nearby, nearby, country wide, and global level with newer theoretical approaches that can interest a student.

With empathy, popularity, and responsiveness, the literary scholastic orthodoxies of the earlier decades may be changed with sparkling contexts, unaffected by using monopolistic processes. In place of pronouncing the demise of Indian English writing or lamenting over its negative satisfactory, because the authors of Indian English Literature: 1980-2000 (2001) M ok Naik and Shyamala A Narayan do, if instructional critics could display professional willpower and dedication, in a quick time we would be able to discover many desirable poets, fiction writers, and playwrights except fostering the art, harnessing the flavor, developing the talent, and selling complaint.

 Thank you

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